History of Mobile Augmented Reality

注: 最近都在忙搬家的事,一整個天昏地暗,這篇翻得差不多了 都一直忘記丟出來勒,雖然還沒做最後的修整,不過最近都沒時間阿><.. 所以還是先丟出來好了…. 有任何問題再煩請賜教一下勒… 感恩

source : https://www.icg.tugraz.at/~daniel/HistoryOvirtualfMobileAR/

This web page summarizes the major milestones in mobile Augmented Reality. The list was compiled by the member of the Christian Doppler Laboratory for Handheld Augmented Reality for the ISMAR society. Permission is granted to copy and modify. Thanks go to the ISMAR09 mobile committee and all others for their valuable suggestions.

Icon Legend

Research Mobile PC Mobile Phone Hardware Standard Game Tool
Paper Notebook Phone Gadget Standard Game Tool

1968

Ivan Sutherland creates the first augmented reality system, which is also the first virtual reality system. It uses an optical see-through head-mounted display that is tracked by one of two different 6DOF trackers: a mechanical tracker and an ultrasonic tracker. Due to the limited processing power of computers at that time, only very simple wireframe drawings could be displayed in real time.

I. Sutherland, “A Head-Mounted Three Dimensional Display”, Proceedings of Fall Joint Computer Conference, 1968, pp. 757-764.

Ivan Sutherland 建立了第一個擴增實境系統,也是第一個虛擬實境的系統。這系統使用了光學的、可穿透的頭戴式顯示器。這個顯示器透過兩種六個自由度的追蹤器來追蹤位置:機械的追蹤器跟超音波的追蹤器。因為計算能力的限制,只有簡單的框架線可以被即時呈現。

1982

The first laptop, the Grid Compass 1100 is released, which was also the first computer to use a clamshell design. The Grid Compass 1100 had an Intel 8086 CPU, 350 Kbytes of memory and a display with a resolution of 320×240 pixels, which was extremely powerful for that time and justified the enormous costs of 10.000 USD. However, its weight of 5kg made it hardly portable.

GRiD Compass 1101

第一台筆記型電腦, the Grid Compass 1100 發表。也是第一台使用貝殼造型的設計的電腦。 The Grid Compass 1100 有著 Intel 8086 的中央處理器。 350k 的記憶體,螢幕解析度為 320×240。在那個時候這樣的配備算的上是相當好,並且只需要 10000 美金。 此外,5公斤的重量相當難以攜帶。

1992

PaperHUDsetTom Caudell and David Mizell coin the term “augmented reality" to refer to overlaying computer-presented material on top of the real world. Caudell and Mizell discuss the advantages of AR versus VR such as requiring less processing power since less pixels have to be rendered. They also acknowledge the increased registration requirements in order to align real and virtual.

Tom Caudell 和 David Mizell 定義了 “擴增實境" 這名詞,其定義為:將電腦所能呈現的素材疊加在真實世界上。 Caudel 和 Mizell 討論了 AR 與 VR 對比之下的優點,例如需要較少得計算能力,因為其要成像(render) 的像素數目較少。他們也知道定位的需求將會越來越高以利將真實與虛擬世界縫合。

T. P. Caudell, and D. W. Mizell, “Augmented Reality: An Application of Heads-Up Display Technology to Manual Manufacturing Processes”, Proceedings of 1992 IEEE Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, 1992, pp 659-669.

PhoneIBM SimonAt COMDEX 1992, IBM and Bellsouth introduce the first smartphone, the IBM Simon Personal Communicator, which was released in 1993. The phone has 1 Megabyte of memory and a B/W touch screen with a resolution of 160 x 293 pixels. The IBM Simon works as phone, pager, calculator, address book, fax machine, and e-mail device. It weights 500 grams and cost 900 USD.

IBM Simon Personal Communicator

在 1992年的 COMDEX 展覽, IBM 和  Bellsouth 介紹了第一台智慧型手機, IBM 的  Simon Personal Communication,這台手機在 1993年釋出。 這台手機有 1 MB的記憶體 和黑白的觸控螢幕,解析度為 160×293 。 這台手機有電話、分頁、計算機、電話簿、傳真機、和電子郵件的功能。 The Simon 手機重500克,定價 900美金。

1993

NotebookPaperLoomis et al. develop a prototype of an outdoor navigation system for visually impaired. They combine a notebook with a differential GPS receiver and a head-worn electronic compass. The application uses data from a GIS (Geographic Information System) database and provides navigational assistance using an “acoustic virtual display": labels are spoken using a speech synthesizer and played back at correct locations within the auditory space of the user.

J. Loomis, R. Golledge and R. Klatzky, “Personal guidance system for the visually impaired using GPS, GIS, and VR technologies”, Proceedings of Conference on Virtual Reality and Persons with Disabilities, 1993.

Loomis 等人 發展了針對視有力障礙使用者的戶外導覽系統。他們使用了一台筆記型電腦、GPS接收器和頭戴式電子羅盤。這套系統使用了GIS系統的資料庫透過語音的虛擬顯示來提供導覽上的協助:標籤透過語音合成系統並且在當使用者處於正確的位置時播放。

HardwarePaperGlobal Positioning SystemFitzmaurice creates Chameleon, a key example of displaying spatially situated information with a tracked hand-held device. In his setup the output device consists of a 4″ screen connected to a video camera via a cable. The video camera records the content of a Silicon Graphics workstation’s large display in order to display it on the small screen. Fitzmaurice uses a tethered magnetic tracker (Ascension bird

) for registration in a small working environment. Several gestures plus a single button allow the user to interact with the mobile device. Chameleon’s mobility was strongly limited due to the cabling. It did also not augment in terms of overlaying objects on a video feed of the real world.

G. W. Fitzmaurice, “Situated information spaces and spatially aware palmtop computers", Communications of the ACM, Special issue on computer augmented environments: back to the real world, 1993, vol. 36, issue 7, pp. 39-49.

Fitzmaurice 建立了變色龍 (Chameleon) 系統,對於在手持裝置上呈現空間相關的資訊,這個系統是一個關鍵的範例。在  Fitzmaurice的設定中,有著四吋的顯示螢幕,透過電纜連結到一台錄影機上。這個攝影機錄製 Silicon Graphics 工作站的螢幕內容並且傳送到這台小螢幕的裝置上。 Fitzmaurice 使用了磁感式位置追蹤器(tethered magnetic tracker 又稱 Ascension bird)在小空間中定位。一些手勢(按:透過前述的追蹤器來感知)和按鈕允許使用者跟行動裝置互動。變色龍的移動性被電纜線嚴重地線制住。也沒有在真實 世界的影像中擴增、疊加些什麼。

StandardGlobal Positioning SystemIn December 1993 the Global Positioning System (GPS, official name “NAVSTAR-GPS") achieves initial operational capability. Although GPS was originally launched as a military service, nowadays millions of people use it for navigation and other tasks such as geo-caching or Augmented Reality. A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS satellites. The accuracy of civilian GPS receivers is typically in the range of 15 meter. More accuracy can be gained by using Differential GPS (DGPS) that uses correction signals from fixed, ground-based reference stations.

Global Positioning System

1993年 九月,全球定位系統(GPS,官方名稱為  NAVSTAR-GPS) 達到了可以初步運作的水準。雖然GPS一開始是以軍用的方式在運行,但目前數以百萬計的人們為了導覽以及其他的工作 像是地理藏寶(geo-caching) 或是 擴增實境。 GPS 接收器會藉著GPS 衛星傳送的位置訊號仔細地計算出目前的位置。民眾用的 GPS接收器 誤差約莫有15公尺。更準確的結果可以透過使用差分計算(DGPS)來取得,這個方式使用了固定的參考點當作基準來校正訊號。

1994

HardwareSteve Mann starts wearing a webcam for almost 2 years. From 1994-1996 Mann wore a mobile camera plus display for almost every waking minute. Both devices were connected to his website allowing online visitors to see what Steve was seeing and to send him messages that would show up on his mobile display.

S. Mann, “Wearable Wireless Webcam,” personal WWW page.

Steve Mann 開始把 webcam穿戴在身上兩年之久。從1994到1996 Mann 穿戴了一個 行動攝影機和小螢幕在他每次行走的時候。兩個裝置都連上他的網站,線上的訪客可以看到他在看什麼以及傳送訊息給他,這些訊息會被顯示在小螢幕上。

Milgrams ContinuumStandardPaul Milgram and Fumio Kishino write their seminal paper “Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays" in which they define the Reality-Virtuality Continuum. Milgram and Kishino describe a continuum that spans from the real environment to the virtual environment. In between there are Augmented Reality, closer to the real environment and Augmented Virtuality, which is closer to the virtual environment. Today Milgram’s Continuum and Azuma’s definition (1997) are commonly accepted as defining Augmented Reality.

P. Milgram and F. Kishino, “Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays", IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, 1994, pp. 1321-1329.

Paul Milgram 和  Fumio Kishino   發表了他們的研討會論文 “Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays" 在這篇論文中他們定義了 現實到虛擬之間的連續集。 Milgram 和  Kishino 提到 這個連續集一邊是現實環境一邊是虛擬環境。介於中間的部份且較靠近真實環境的是擴增實境,較靠近虛擬環境的是擴增虛擬。 Milgram 和 Azuma 對於擴增實境的的定義與解釋在今日已被普遍接受。

1995

HardwarePaperNaviCamJun Rekimoto and Katashi Nagao create the NaviCam, a tethered setup, similar to Fitzmaurice’s Chameleon. The NaviCam also uses a nearby powerful workstation, but has a camera mounted on the mobile screen that is used for optical tracking. The computer detects color-coded markers in the live camera image and displays context sensitive information directly on top of the video feed in a see-through manner.

J. Rekimoto and K. Nagao, “The World through the Computer: Computer Augmented Interaction with Real World Environments”, Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology (UIST ’95), 1995, pp. 29-36.

Jun Rekimoto 和 Katashi Nagao 建立了 NaviCam,在設定上有點類似 Fitzmaurice的 Chameleon。  NaviCam 同樣也利用了附近的強大工作站,但不同的是它採用了在行動裝置螢幕附近裝設的攝影機來做光學定位。電腦會透過攝影機的畫面即時偵測、辨認彩色編碼過得記號 卡,並且將相關的資訊以半透明的方式直接疊加在螢幕上。

1996

PaperMatrixCodeJun Rekimoto presents 2D matrix markers (square-shaped barcodes), one of the first marker systems to allow camera tracking with six degrees of freedom.

Rekimoto, J. (1996). Augmented Reality Using the 2D Matrix Code. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Interactive Systems and Software (WISS’96).

Jun Rekimoto 介紹了 二維矩陣標記(2D matrix markers ),這套標記系統允許攝影機的追蹤可辨認六個方向。

1997

StandardRonald Azuma presents the first survey on Augmented Reality. In his publication, Azuma provides a widely acknowledged definition for AR, as identified by three characteristics:

  • it combines real and virtual
  • it is interactive in real time
  • it is registered in 3D.

R. Azuma, “A survey of augmented reality”, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1997, pp. 355–385.

Touring MachineTouring MachineNotebookPaperSteve Feiner et al. present the Touring Machine, the first mobile augmented reality system (MARS). It uses a see-through head-worn display with integral orientation tracker; a backpack holding a computer, differential GPS, and digital radio for wireless web access; and a hand-held computer with stylus and touchpad interface.

S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, T. Höllerer and A. Webster, “A touring machine: Prototyping 3D mobile augmented reality systems for exploring the urban environment”, Proceedings of First IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC ’97), 1997, pp 74–81. Cambridge, MA.

Ronald Azuma 等人介紹了第一個擴增實境的調查研究。在這篇文章中, Azuma 提供了較為廣泛的擴增實境定義,定義如下:

  • 它結合虛擬與現實。
  • 它是即時互動的
  • 在3D的環境中

Steve Feiner 等人的導覽機器(Touring Machine),是第一款行動裝置上的擴增實境系統(MARS)。它使用了可透光的頭戴式顯示器,整合了方向的辨識器;背包裡有一台電腦, GPS 和位數無線電訊號,用來存取網路。手持裝置則有著手寫筆和觸控版的介面。

NotebookPaperThad Starner et al. explore possible applications of mobile augmented reality, creating a small community of users equipped with wearable computers interconnected over a network. The explored applications include an information system for offices, people recognition and coarse localization with infrared beacons.

Starner, T., Mann, S., Rhodes, B., Levine, J., Healey, J., Kirsch, D., Picard, R.W., Pentland, A., Augmented Reality Through Wearable Computing, In Presence, Special Issue on Augmented Reality, 1997.

Thad Starner 等人 探索更多行動裝置上的擴增實境的可能,建立了一個社群,裡面的成員穿戴著行動運算裝置透過網路互相連接。新的可能的應用程式包含了辦公室用的訊息系統、人 類辨識(people recognition)和透過紅外線的裝置來實做的定位系統。

Camera PhonePhonePhilippe Kahn invents the camera phone, a mobile phone which is able to capture still photographs. Back in 1997, Kahn used his invention to share a picture of his newborn daughter with more than 2000 relatives and friends, spread around the world. Today more than half of all mobile phones in use are camera phones.
Philppe Kahn 發明了有攝影機的手機,手機可以抓取靜止的影像。 回到 1997年 Kahn 使用他的發明來分享他剛出生女兒的照片給世界各地超過2000個相關人士和朋友。在今日,50%以上的手機都在使用照相機的功能。

1998

TinmithNotebookPaperBruce Thomas et al. present “Map-in-the-hat", a backpack-based wearable computer that includes GPS, electronic compass and a head-mounted display. At this stage the system was utilized for navigation guidance, but it later evolved into Tinmith, an AR platform used for several other AR projects.

B. H. Thomas, V. Demczuk, W. Piekarski, D. Hepworth and B. Gunther, “A wearable computer system with augmented reality to support terrestrial navigation”, Proceedings of Second IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC ’98), 1998, pp. 168-171.

Bruce Thomas 等人介紹了 ‘Map-in-the-hat’,一套基於背包的穿戴式電腦,有著GPS 、電子羅盤和頭戴式顯示器。在這個階段,這套系統被還是被用來當作是導覽系統,但稍候它發展成一個計畫:  Tinmith ,一套被用到許多其他專案的擴增實境平台。

1999

PaperTinmithHirokazu Kato and Mark Billinghurst present ARToolKit, a pose tracking library with six degrees of freedom, using square fiducials and a template-based approach for recognition. ARToolKit is available as open source under the GPL license and is still very popular in the AR community.

H. Kato and M. Billinghurst, Marker tracking and HMD calibration for a video-based augmented reality conferencing system, Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE and ACM International Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR 99), 1999, pp. 85-94.

Hirokazu Kato 和 Mark Billinghurst 發表了 ARToolKit, 一套可以辨識六個自由度的追蹤函式庫,使用了方塊當作基準點和樣板為基礎的辨認系統。 ARToolKit 是基於 GPL 條款的開放源碼函式庫,到目前為止在AR的領域還是相當熱門。

NotebookPaperMars UITobias Höllerer et al. develop a mobile AR system that allows the user to explore hypermedia news stories that are located at the places to which they refer and to receive a guided campus tour that overlays models of earlier buildings. This was the first mobile AR system to use RTK GPS and an inertial-magnetic orientation tracker.

T. Höllerer, S. Feiner, and J. Pavlik, Situated documentaries: Embedding multimedia presentations in the real world, Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC 99), 1999, pp. 79-86.

Tobias Höllerer等人發展了一套 行動裝置的擴增實境系統,其可允許使用者去觀看混合媒體的新聞、故事,這些資訊跟使用者所在的位置有所相關,並在校園導覽系統中覆蓋了早期的建築。 這一套是第一套行動裝置上的 擴增實境系統,使用了 RTK 技術的全球定位系統(GPS),和磁性的追蹤器(inertial-magnetic orientation tracker)。

NotebookPaperMars UITobias Höllerer et al. present a mobile augmented reality system that includes indoor user interfaces (desktop, AR tabletop, and head-worn VR) to interact with the outdoor user. While outdoor users experience a first-person spatialized multimedia presentation via a head-mounted display, indoor users can get an overview of the outdoor scene.

T. Höllerer, S. Feiner, T. Terauchi, G. Rashid and D. Hallaway, Exploring MARS: Developing indoor and outdoor user interfaces to a mobile augmented reality system. Computers and Graphics, 1999, pp. 779–785.

Tobias Höllerer 等人發展了一套行動裝置上的擴增實境系統,它包含了室內的使用者介面(桌上型電腦、 擴增實境的桌上型電腦、和頭戴式顯示器) 以利跟室外的使用者互動。當室外的使用者透過頭戴式顯示器感受到空間的多媒體呈現時,室內的使用者也可以獲得室外的概觀。

PaperJim Spohrer publishes the Worldboard concept, a scalable infrastructure to support mobile applications that span from low-end location-based services, up to high-end mobile AR. In his paper, Spohrer also envisions possible application cases for mobile AR, and social implications.

J. C. Spohrer, Information in Places, IBM Systems Journal, 1999, pp. 602-628.

Jim Spohrer 發表了 Worldboard 的概念, 一個可伸縮的基礎建設,用以支撐行動裝置上的應用程式,使其可以從低階的地點相關服務的應用程式類型轉變成高階的行動裝置上的擴增實境系統。 在這篇論文中, Spohrer 也提出了行動裝置上上擴增實境的其他可能,和社交方面所帶來的衝擊。

PhoneBenefon Esc! NT2002, the first GSM phone with a built-in GPS receiver is released in late 1999. It had a black and white screen with a resolution of 100×160 pixels. Due to limited storage, the phone downloaded maps on demand. The phone also included a friend finder that exchanged GPS positions with other Esc! devices via SMS.

Benefon Esc! NT2002 是第一台內建GPS接收器的 GSM系統手機,在1999年末釋出。它有100×160的黑白螢幕。因為受限的儲存裝置,此手機只在需要的時候下載地圖。這台手機也包含了交友系統,可 以跟其他台 Esc! 透過 SMS交換 GPS 位置。

StandardThe wireless network protocols 802.11a/802.11b – commonly known as WiFi – are defined. The original version – obsolete – specifies bitrates of 1 or 2 megabits per second (Mbit/s), plus forward error correction code.

無線網路通訊協定  802.11a/802.11b -通常被稱作 WiFi – 於此年被定義。最初始的版本(後來被捨棄),定義傳輸速度為 1-2 Mb/s ,且附帶錯誤校正碼。

2000

NotebookGameBruce Thomas et al. present AR-Quake, an extension to the popular desktop game Quake. ARQuake is a first-person perspective application which is based on a 6DOF tracking system using GPS, a digital compass and vision-based tracking of fiducial markers. Users are equipped with a wearable computer system in a backpack, an HMD and a simple two-button input device. The game can be played in- or outdoors where the usual keyboard and mouse commands for movement and actions are performed by movements of the user in the real environment and using the simple input interface.

B. Thomas, B. Close, J. Donoghue, J. Squires, P. De Bondi, M. Morris and W. Piekarski, “ARQuake: An Outdoor/Indoor Augmented Reality First Person Application”, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Wearable Computers, 2000, pp. 139-146.

Bruce Tomas 等人發展了 AR-Quake ,一套熱門的遊戲-雷神之鎚的衍生。 ARQuake 是一套第一人稱的應用程式,此程式基於  使用GPS的  6DOF追蹤系統,電子羅盤, 和基於marker的視覺追蹤系統。 使用者在背背佩帶著可穿戴式電腦,頭戴式顯示器和簡單的雙鍵式輸入裝置。 這個遊戲可以在室內或是室外進行,不再使用鍵盤滑鼠來移動以及進行動作,反而使用使用者在真實環境中的移動和簡單的輸入裝置來操作。

NotebookPaperRegenbrecht and Specht present mPARD, using analogue wireless video transmission to a host computer which is taking the burden of computation off the mobile hardware platform. The rendered and augmented images are sent back to the visualization device over a separate analog channel. The system can operate within 300m outdoors and 30m indoors, and the batteries allow for an uninterrupted operation of 5 hours at max.

H. Regenbrecht and R. Specht, “A mobile Passive Augmented Reality Device”, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR 2000), 2000, pp. 81-84.

Regenbrecht 和 Specht 發展了 mPARD,使用類比無線訊號將對於行動裝置來說負荷過於沈重的影像計算傳回伺服器, 成像和擴增後的影像會透過另外的頻道回傳至負責呈現的裝置上。 這個系統可以處理三百公尺左右的室外環境,和30公尺的室內環境,電池續航力最多可以持續使用五個小時之久。

NotebookPaperSimon Julier et al. present BARS, the Battlefield Augmented Reality System. The system consists of a wearable computer, a wireless network system and a see-through HMD. The system targets the augmentation of a battlefield scene with additional information about environmental infrastructure, but also about possible enemy ambushes.

S. Julier, Y. Baillot, M, Lanzagorta, D. Brown and L. Rosenblum, “BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System”, NATO Information Systems Technology Panel Symposium on New Information Processing Techniques for Military Systems, 2000.

Simon Julier 等人發展了 BARS (Battlefield Augmented Reality System)。   這套系統由可穿戴式電腦、無線網路、和可看穿的頭戴式顯示器組成。 這套系統的目的是 透過顯示有關環境的附加資訊來強化戰場的視覺,但依然可能遭受敵人的伏擊。

PhoneSharp corporation releases the first commercial camera phone to public. The official name of the phone is J-SH04. The phones’ camera has a resolution of 0.1 megapixels.

Sharp 公司是出了第一隻擁有照相功能的商業手機。 正式的名稱叫做是 J-SH04 。 這隻手機的相機解析度有一百萬像素。

2001

HardwarePaperJoseph Newman et al. present the BatPortal, a PDA-based, wireless AR system. Localization is performed by measuring the travel time of ultra-sonic pulses between specially built devices worn by the user, so-called Bats, and fixed installed receivers deployed in the floors ceilings building-wide. The system can support an HMD-based system, but also the more well known BatPortal using a handheld device. Based on a fixed configuration of the PDA carried and the personal Bat worn, the direction of the users view is estimated, and a model of the scene with additional information about the scene is rendered onto the PDA screen.

J. Newman, D. Ingram and A. Hopper, “Augmented Reality in a Wide Area Sentient Environment”, Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR 2001), 2001, pp. 77-86.

Joseph Neman 等人發表了  BatPortal ,一套基於 PDA 、無線網路的 擴增實境系統。 定位的方式則是採用測量使用者穿戴在身上的裝置發出超音波跟特殊裝置的反應時間,所以被稱作 bat (蝙蝠),而固定的接收器被部屬在整棟大樓的天花板。 這套系統可以支援頭戴式顯示器,但這套系統被廣為人知的則是使用手持式裝置。基於固定配置的 PDA 和個人蝙蝠系統,使用者所面對的方向是可以被計算出來的,這些額外的資訊會被呈現在 PDA的螢幕上。

NotebookPaperHara et al. introduce TOWNWEAR, an outdoor system that uses a fiber optic gyroscope for orientation tracking. The high precision gyroscope is used to measure the 3DOF head direction accurately with minimal drift, which is then compensated by tracking natural features.

Satoh, K.; Anabuki, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Tamura, H.;A hybrid registration method for outdoor augmented reality International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR), 29-30 Oct. 2001 pp. 67 – 76

Hara 等人 介紹了  TOWNWEAR ,一套使用了光學的陀螺儀作為方向偵測的室外系統。 這個高精準度的陀螺儀可以被用來測量三個自由度內的頭部面對的位置,而只有一點點得誤差,而這點可以透過追蹤自然的特徵(按:臉部之類的..) 來補償。

PhonePaperJürgen Fruend et al present AR-PDA, a concept for building a wireless AR system and a special prototype of palm-sized hardware. Basic design ideas include the augmentation of real camera images with additional virtual objects, for example for illustration of functionality and interaction with commonly used household equipment.

J. Fruend, C. Geiger, M. Grafe and B. Kleinjohann, ”The Augmented Reality Personal Digital Assistant”, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISAR 2001), 2001.

Jürgen Fruend 等人 發表了 AR-PDA,這個概念是為了建立無線的擴增實境系統,並且限定在 palm 大小裝置上的雛型系統。基本的設定概念包含了透過攝影機附加虛擬物件的擴增方式,舉例來說,右圖描繪了跟家中電器的互動方式。

NotebookPaperReitmayr and Schmalstieg present a mobile, multi-user AR system. The ideas of mobile augmented reality and collaboration between users in augmented shared space are combined and merged into a hybrid system. Communication is performed using LAN and wireless LAN, where mobile users and stationary users are acting in a common augmented space.

G. Reitmayr, and D. Schmalstieg, “Mobile Collaborative Augmented Reality”, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Augmented Reality, 2001, pp. 114-123.

Reitmayr and Schmalstieg 推出了 行動裝置上的多使用者擴增實境系統。 行動裝置上的擴增實境和使用者在共享的擴增空間中的合作結合後會產生出一個混合系統(hybrid system) , 通訊方面使用了有線、無線的傳輸方式,其中行動裝置的使用者可以和使用固定系統的使用者在同一個共享的擴增空間中行動。

NotebookPhonePaperVlahakis et al. present Archeoguide, a mobile AR system for cultural heritage sites. The system is built around the historical site of Olympia, Greece. The system contains a navigation interface, 3D models of ancient temples and statues, and avatars which are competing for the win in the historical run in the ancient Stadium. While communication is based on WLAN, accurate localization is performed using GPS. Within the system a scalable setup of mobile units can be used, starting with a notebook sized system with HMD, down to palmtop computers and Pocket PCs.

V. Vlahakis, J. Karigiannis, M. Tsotros, M. Gounaris, L. Almeida, D. Stricker, T. Gleue, I. Christou, R. Carlucci and N. Ioannidis, “ARCHEOGUIDE: First results of an Augmented Reality, Mobile Computing System in Cultural Heritage Sites”, Proceedings of Virtual Reality, Archaeology, and Cultural Heritage International Symposium (VAST01), 2001,  pp. 131 – 140.

Vlahakis et al. 發表了  Archeoguide,一套為了文化遺址而生的擴增系統。這套系統圍繞著希臘的奧林匹亞建立。 這套系統包含了瀏覽的介面、 古神殿、雕像的3D模型,以及 在古老神殿中為了勝利互相鬥爭的 神祇。 這套系統透過無線網路溝通、GPS來定位。這套系統的彈性很大,筆記型電腦大小(搭配頭戴式顯示器)可以安裝,也可以安裝在 palm、 Pocket PC 上面。

NotebookPaperKretschmer et al. present the GEIST system, a system for interactive story-telling within urban and/or historical environments. A complex database setup provides information queues for the appearance of buildings in ancient times or historical facts and events. Complex queries can be formulated and stories can be told by fictional avatars or historical persons.

U. Kretschmer, V. Coors, U. Spierling, D. Grasbon, K. Schneider, I. Rojas, and R. Malaka, “Meeting the spirit of history”, Proceedings of the 2001 conference on Virtual reality, archeology, and cultural heritage, 2001, pp. 141-152.

Kretschmer et al. 發表了 GEIST 系統,這套系統是一套城市或是歷史的環境的互動說故事系統。複雜的資料庫設定提供了久遠的建築次外觀或是歷史上的事實跟事件。 複雜的事件可以藉由小說的角色或是歷史人物來述說。

NotebookPaperColumbia’s Computer Graphics and User Interfaces Lab does an outdoor demonstration of their mobile AR restaurant guide at ISAR 2001, running on their Touring Machine. Pop-up information sheets for nearby restaurants are overlaid on the user’s view, and linked to reviews, menus, photos, and restaurant URLs.

B. Bell, S. Feiner, and T. Höllerer, View Management for Virtual and Augmented Reality, In Proc. UIST ’01, Orlando, FL, November 11-14 2001. pp. 101-110

哥倫比亞的電腦圖形和使用者介面實驗室在 ISAR 2001 的會議上展現了他們戶外的行動裝置上的擴增實境餐廳導覽,這系統跑在他們自己的圖靈機上。 附近的餐廳列表會附加在使用者的視野上,並且連結到意見、菜單、照片和餐廳的網址。

NotebookPaperKooper and MacIntyre create the RWWW Browser, a mobile AR application that acts as an interface to the World Wide Web. It is the first AR browser. This early system suffers from the cumbersome AR hardware of that time, requiring a head mounted display and complicated tracking infrastructure. In 2008 Wikitude implements a similar idea on a mobile phone.

Browsing the Real-World Wide Web: Maintaining Awareness of Virtual Information in an AR Information Space, Kooper, R., MacIntyre, B., In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 16, Nr. 3, pp. 425-446 December 2003

Kooper和  MacIntyre建立了 RWWW瀏覽器,這是一套行動裝置上的擴增實境應用程式,其行為就像是全球資訊網的介面。這也是第一套擴增實境瀏覽器。早期的系統需要沈重的裝備,像是頭 戴式顯示器,和複雜的追蹤系統。 2008年推出的  Wikitue則是把類似的點子實做在手機上。

2002

Structured Visual Markers for Indoor PathfindingNotebookPaperMichael Kalkusch et al. present a mobile augmented reality system to guide a user through an unfamiliar building to a destination room. The system presents a world-registered wire frame model of the building labeled with directional information in a see-through heads-up display, and a three-dimensional world-in-miniature (WIM) map on a wrist-worn pad that also acts as an input device. Tracking is done using a combination of wall-mounted ARToolkit markers observed by a head-mounted camera, and an inertial tracker.

M. Kalkusch, T. Lidy, M. Knapp, G. Reitmayr, H. Kaufmann and D. Schmalstieg, “Structured Visual Markers for Indoor Pathfinding”, Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on ARToolKit (ART02), 2002.

Michael Kalkusch 等人介紹了一套行動裝置上的擴增實境系統來導覽使用者在不熟悉的建築物中到達目的地的房間。這套系統會顯示建築物的全域線框模型和方位資訊在可透光的頭戴 式顯示器上,且手臂上配戴了一個小型的三維模型來當輸入裝置。追蹤方式透過頭戴式攝影機辨認放在牆上的 ARToolkit的 Marker,和慣性追蹤器。

(按: 這位前輩 你知道你柱子上貼著 “亡"….這個字的意思嗎….)

HardwarePaperLeonid Naimark and Eric Foxlin present a wearable low-power hybrid visual and inertial tracker. This tracker, later to be known as InterSense’s IS-1200, can be used for tracking in large scale, such as a complete building. This is achieved by tracking a newly designed 2-D barcode with thousands of different codes and combining the result with an inertial sensor.

L. Naimark and E. Foxlin, “Circular Data Matrix Fiducial System and Robust Image Processing for a Wearable Vision-Inertial Self-Tracker”, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2002), 2002, pp. 27-36.

Leonid Naimark and Eric Foxlin 介紹了 可穿戴式低耗能的視覺和慣性追蹤器。之後這個追蹤器會被命名為 InterSense’s IS-1200,可以被用來在大型的區域中,像是整棟建築物,的追蹤。他們透過追蹤最新設計的二維條碼(最多可以到上千組不同)以及結合了慣性追蹤器來作 到這個效果。

2003

HumanPacmanNotebookGameAdrian David Cheok et al. present the Human Pacman. Human Pacman is an interactive ubiquitous and mobile entertainment system that is built upon position and perspective sensing via Global Positioning System and inertia sensors; and tangible human-computer interfacing with the use of Bluetooth and capacitive sensors. Pacmen and Ghosts are now real human players in the real world experiencing mixed computer graphics fantasy-reality provided by using wearable computers that are equipped with GPS and inertia sensors for players’ position and perspective tracking. Virtual cookies and actual tangible physical objects with Bluetooth devices and capacitive sensors are incorporated into the game play to provide novel experiences of seamless transitions between real and virtual worlds.

A. D. Cheok, S. W. Fong, K. H. Goh, X. Yang, W. Liu and F. Farzbiz, “Human Pacman: a sensing-based mobile entertainment system with ubiquitous computing and tangible interaction” Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Network and System Support For Games (NetGames ’03), 2003, pp. 71-81.

Adrian David Cheok  等人介紹了 Human Pacman。 Human Pacman 是一套互動式無所不在的行動娛樂系統,這套系統透過 GPS 系統和慣性感應器來偵測使用者的位置和視角。可觸知的人機介面透過藍芽和電容式感應器來做。 Pacman 和 Ghosts 都是由真人所扮演並混合了電腦圖學結合幻象與真實,這個藉由使用裝備有GPS系統的可穿戴式電腦和慣性偵測器來偵測使用者的定位以及視角的追蹤來達成。 虛擬的 cookies 和實際可觸知的物透過藍芽和電容式感應器混合入遊戲玩法中以提供在虛擬與真實世界中無縫的美妙遊戲經驗。

iLampsNotebookPaperRamesh Raskar et al. present iLamps. This work created a first prototype for object augmentation with a hand-held projector-camera system. An enhanced projector can determine and respond to the geometry of the display surface, and can be used in an ad-hoc cluster to create a self-configuring display. Furthermore interaction techniques and co-operation between multiple units are discussed.

R. Raskar, J. van Baar, P. Beardsley, T. Willwacher, S. Rao and C. Forlines, “ilamps: geometrically aware and self-configuring projectors", SIGGRAPH ’05: ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Courses, 2005.

Ramesh Raskar 等人介紹了 iLamps 。 這個作品建立了第一個透過手持投影裝置的雛型系統。強化過的投影機可以偵測和反應投影的平面上,並且可以透過 ad-hoc 來建立自我設定的顯示裝置。此外 互動科技和與不同的物件一起合作也是一個被探討的主題。

First Steps Towards Handheld Augmented RealityPhonePaperDaniel Wagner and Dieter Schmalstieg present an indoor AR guidance system running autonomously on a PDA. They exploit the wide availability of consumer devices with a minimal need for infrastructure. The application provides the user with a three-dimensional augmented view of the environment by using a Windows Mobile port of ARToolKit for tracking and runs directly on the PDA.

D. Wagner and D. Schmalstieg, “First Steps Towards Handheld Augmented Reality”, Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC 03), 2003, pp. 127-135.

Daniel Wagner 和 Dieter Schmalstieg 發表了 一套室內的擴增實境導覽系統,這套系統跑在 PDA上。他們利用最普片的消費性產品,和最少的系資源。這套系統採用了直接運行在 Windows Mobile 上的 ARTooKit  來提供使用者一個三維的擴增實境環境。

Video See-Through AR on Consumer Cell PhonesPhoneGameThe Siemens SX1 is released, coming with the first commercial mobile phone AR camera game called Mozzies (also known as Mosquito Hunt). The mosquitoes are superimposed on the live video feed from the camera. Aiming is done by moving the phone around so that the cross hair points at the mosquitoes. Mozzies was awarded the title of best mobile game in 2003.

The Siemens SX1 釋出,帶來了第一套商業的手機上的擴增實境遊戲: Mozzies( 另一個廣為人知的名稱是  Mosquito Hunt) 。 The mosquitoes 的作法是直接在攝影機的影像上疊加物件。 藉著移動手機來將十字游標移動到蚊子的身上來瞄準, Mozzies 獲得 2003最佳行動裝置遊戲的獎項。

PaperVideo See-Through AR on Consumer Cell PhonesSinem Guven presents a mobile AR authoring system for creating and editing 3D hypermedia narratives that are interwoven with a wearable computer user’s surrounding environment. Their system was designed for authors who are not programmers and used a combination of 3D drag-and-drop for positioning media and a timeline for synchronization. It allowed authors to preview their results on a desktop workstation, as well as with a wearable AR or VR system.

Guven, S. and Feiner, S. Authoring 3D hypermedia for wearable augmented and virtual reality. Proc. ISWC 2003 (IEEE Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers), White Plains, NY, October 21-23, 2003, 118-126

Sinem Guven 發表了 一套 行動裝置上的擴增實境編輯系統,這套系統用來編輯、修改 3D 超媒體的描述,這個描述系統式用來編輯使用穿戴式電腦時所看見的環境。這套系統是為了非程式人員設計,使用了 3D 的拖拉來定位媒體和時間軸。 這套系統也允許使用者在桌上型工作站上預覽他們的結果,也可以在 可穿戴式上電腦設備上的 AR 或是 VR 系統上觀看。



2004

PhonePaperVideo See-Through AR on Consumer Cell PhonesMathias Möhring et al. present a system for tracking 3D markers on a mobile phone. This work showed a first video see-through augmented reality system on a consumer cell-phone. It supports the detection and differentiation of different 3D markers, and correct integration of rendered 3D graphics into the live video stream.

M. Möhring, C. Lessig and O. Bimber, “Video See-Through AR on Consumer Cell Phones”, Proceedings of the 3th IEEE/ACM international Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 04), 2004, pp. 252-253.

Mathias Möhring等人 發表了在手機上追蹤 三維標記的系統。這套系統展示了第一個在消費性手機上透過攝影機來擴增的系統。 這套系統支援了偵測 不同三維標記的和在即時的影像中呈現、校正 3D影像。

Visual CodesPhonePaperMichael Rohs and Beat Gfeller present Visual Codes, a 2D marker system for mobile phones. These codes can be attached to physical objects in order to retrieve object-related information and functionality. They are also suitable for display on electronic screens.

M. Rohs and B. Gfeller, “Using Camera-Equipped Mobile Phones for Interacting with Real-World Objects”, Advances in Pervasive Computing, 2004, pp. 265-271.

Michael Rohs and Beat Gfeller 介紹了  Visual Codes , 這是一套給手機使用的二維標記系統。這些標記可以被附加在實體的物件上,以利用來存取跟物件有關的相關資訊和一些功能。 這些也很適合在螢幕上呈現。

PaperEnylton Machado Coelho et al presents OSGAR, a scene graph with uncertain transformations. In their work they target the problem of registration error, which is especially important for mobile scenarios when high quality trackign is not available and overlay graphics will not align perfectly with the real environment. OSGAR dynamically adapts the display to mitigate the effects of registration errors.

Enylton Machado Coelho 等人發表了  OSGAR,a scene graph with uncertain transformations 。 在他們的專案中他們的目標是解決移動裝置上無法使用精準的追蹤,導致疊加上去的圖像無法正確地對齊在真實環境中的問題 – registration error。  OSGAR 動態地改變顯示來減輕  registration errors 所帶來的效應。

Invisible TrainPhoneGameThe Invisible Train, is shown at SIGGRAPH 2004 Emerging Technologies. The Invisible Train is the first multi-user Augmented Reality application for handheld devices.

The invisible train web page

The Unvisible Train ,在 2004年的   SIGGRAPH Emerging Technologies  展示。 The Invisible Train 是第一套在手持裝置上多人使用的擴增實境應用程式。

2005

AR TennisPhoneGameAnders Henrysson ports ARToolKit to Symbian. Based on this technology he presents the famous AR-Tennis game, the first collaborative AR application running on a mobile phone. ARTennis was awarded the Indepdent Mobile Gaming best game award for 2005, and the technical achievement award.

A. Henrysson, M. Billinghurst, and M. Ollila, “Face to Face Collaborative AR on Mobile Phones”, Proceedings of the 4th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 05), 2005, pp. 80-89.

Anders Henrysson 將 ARToolKit移植到  Symbian上。基於這個技術,他展示了有名的 AR-Tennis 遊戲,第一套跑在手機上的協同擴增實境應用程式。 ARTennis 獲得  2005年 獨立製作行動裝置遊戲 最佳遊戲獎,和 技術成就獎。

PhonePaperProject ULTRA shows how to use non-realtime natural feature tracking on PDAs to support people in multiple domains such as the maintenance and support of complex machines, construction and production, and edutainment and cultural heritage. Furthermore an authoring environment is developed to create the AR scenes for the maintenance tasks.

A. Makri, D. Arsenijevic, J. Weidenhausen, P. Eschler, D. Stricker, O. Machui, C. Fernandes, S. Maria, G. Voss and N. Ioannidis, “ULTRA: An Augmented Reality System for Handheld Platforms, Targeting Industrial Maintenance Applications”, Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia (VSMM’05), 2005.

ULTRA 這個專案展示了如何在PDA上使用非現實的自然特色追蹤來支援人們在不同的使用環境之下,像是維護複雜的機器、建造和生產,以及娛樂跟歷史遺跡。此外 可以編輯的環境被發展來建立 擴增實際的場景以利維護工作的進行。

2006

NotebookPaperReitmayrReitmayr et al. presents a model-based hybrid tracking system for outdoor augmented reality in urban environments enabling accurate, real-time overlays on a handheld device. The system combines an edge-based tracker for accurate localization, gyroscope measurements to deal with fast motions, measurements of gravity and magnetic field to avoid drift, and a back store of reference frames with online frame selection to re-initialize automatically after dynamic occlusions or failures.

G. Reitmayr and T. Drummond, “Going Out: Robust Model-based Tracking for Outdoor Augmented Reality”, Proceedings of 5th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2006), 2006, pp. 109-118.

Reitmayr et al. 展示了 以模組為基礎、運行在城市環境的混合戶外擴增實境追蹤系統,這套系統可以準確且即時的在手持裝置上呈現虛擬層。 這套系統混用了 邊緣偵測的技術來準確的定位、偵測陀螺儀的移動來處理快速的運動、量測重力和磁場來避免漂移,and a back store of reference frames with online frame selection to re-initialize automatically after dynamic occlusions or failures. (不懂 @@)

Mara-nokia

PhonePaperNokia presents Mara, a multi-sensor mobile phone AR guidance application for mobile phones. The prototype application overlays the continuous viewfinder image stream captured by the camera with graphics and text in real time, annotating the user’s surroundings.

Mara

Nokia 展示了一套使用多個感知器的行動裝置上的擴增實境導覽系統。雛型系統即時的疊加了文字和圖形在攝影機所擷取的影像上,且標注了使用者的周遭環境。

2007

NotebookPaperKleinKlein and Murray present a system capable of robust real-time tracking and mapping in parallel with a monocular camera in small workspaces. It is an adaption of a SLAM approach which processes the tracking and mapping task on two separated threads.

G. Klein and D. Murray, “Parallel tracking and mapping for small ar workspaces”, Proceedings of 6th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2007), 2007, pp. 225-234.

Klein and Murray 展示了小工作空間中透過平行的單眼相機的強力的即時追蹤和定位系統。 這套系統採用了SLAM的方式,這個方式是將追蹤核定餵系統分散到兩個分開的執行緒上。

DiVerdi

NotebookPaperDiVerdi and Höllerer present the GroundCam, a system combining a camera and an orientation tracker. The camera points at the ground behind the user and provides 2D tracking information. The method is similar to that of an optical desktop mouse.

S. DiVerdi and T. Höllerer, “GroundCam: A Tracking Modality for Mobile Mixed Reality”, Proceedings of the 9th international Conference on Virtual Reality, IEEE VR 2007, pp. 75-82. Best Paper Honorable Mention.

DiVerdi and Höllerer 展示了 GroundCam,這套系統結合了攝影機和方向追蹤器。攝影機放置在使用者背後,且對著地面以提供二維的追蹤資訊。這個想法類似光學滑鼠的作法。

Nokia

PhonePaperRohs et al. compare the performance of the following navigation methods for map navigation on mobile devices: joystick navigation, the dynamic peephole method without visual context, and the magic lens paradigm using external visual context. In their user study they demonstrate the advantage of dynamic peephole and magic lens interaction over joystick interaction in terms of search time and degree of exploration of the search space.

M. Rohs, J. Schöning, M. Raubal, G. Essl and A. Krüger, “Map navigation with mobile devices: virtual versus physical movement with and without visual context”, Proceedings of the 9th international Conference on Multimodal interfaces, ICMI 2007, pp. 146-153.

Rohs 等人比較了下列幾種在行動裝置上的地圖瀏覽方式的效率:搖桿方式的瀏覽、沒有視覺內容的動態窺視孔以及使用額外視覺內容的放大鏡方式。在他們的使用者研究中,他們證明了動態的窺視孔和放大鏡的方式在搜尋時間和搜尋所需的周遭空間上勝過搖桿的互動方式。

PhoneNokiaHIT Lab NZ and Saatchi and Saatchi deliver the world’s first mobile phone based AR advertising application for the Wellington Zoo.

More details

HIT Lab NZ 和 Saatchi為了威靈頓動物園發展出了世界上第一套運行在手機上的擴增實境冒險應用程式。

2008

PhonePaperWagner et al. present the first real-time 6DOF implementation of natural feature tracking in real-time on mobile phones achieving interactive frame rates of up to 20 Hz. They heavily modify the well known SIFT and Ferns methods in order to gain more speed and reduce memory requirements.

D. Wagner, G. Reitmayr, A. Mulloni, T. Drummond and D. Schmalstieg, “Pose tracking from natural features on mobile phones”, Proceedings of the 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2008 (ISMAR 2008), 2008, pp. 125-134.

Wagner 等人發表了第一套即時的六自由度的自然特色追蹤系統,此系統運行在手機上,且其 frame rate可以達到 20Hz /s 的速度。 他們修改了廣為人知的  SIFT  和 Ferns 方法使得速度更快且消耗較少的記憶體。

Metaio

NotebookPaperMETAIO presents a commercial mobile AR museum guide using natural feature tracking or a six-month exhibition on Islamic art. In their paper they describe the experiences made in this project.

T. Miyashita, P. Meier, T. Tachikawa, S. Orlic, T. Eble, V. Scholz, A. Gapel, O. Gerl, S. Arnaudov and S. Lieberknecht, “An Augmented Reality Museum Guide”, Proceedings of the 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2008 (ISMAR 2008), 2008, pp. 103-106.

METAIO 發表了 一套商業用的行動裝置上的博物館擴增實境導覽系統,使用自然特色來追蹤。這個展覽是為期六個月的伊斯蘭藝術展覽。 在他們的論文中,他們描述了這個專案中的相關經驗

PhoneToolMobilizy launches Wikitude, an application that combines GPS and compass data with Wikipedia entries. The Wikitude World Browser overlays information on the real-time camera view of an Android smartphone.

Wikitude

Mobilizy 啟用了 Wikitude, 這個應用程式結合了GPS 、數位羅盤和維基百科的條目。 Wikitude 世界的瀏覽器在 Android 手機上疊加資訊在攝影機上即時抓取的影像。

2009

PhonePaperMap-lensMorrison et al. present MapLens which is a mobile augmented reality (AR) map using a magic lens over a paper map. They conduct a broad user study in form of an outdoor location-based game. Their main finding is that AR features facilitate place-making by creating a constant need for referencing to the physical. The field trials show that the main potential of AR maps lies in their use as a collaborative tool.

A. Morrison, A. Oulasvirta, P. Peltonen, S. Lemmelä, G. Jacucci, G. Reitmayr, J. Näsänen and A. Juustila, “Like Bees Around the Hive: A Comparative Study of a Mobile Augmented Reality Map”, Proceedings of the 27th international conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI 2009), 2009, pp. 1889-1898.

Morrison 等人發表了 MapLens ,這套系統是一套行動裝置上的擴增實境地圖程式,其使用了魔法鏡在紙版的地圖上。他們透過戶外跟地點有關的遊戲方式來進行廣泛的使用者測試。 他們主要的發現是 擴增實境的特色使得建立地標變得較為容易,其藉著建立參考到實體的固定需求。 這個研究展現了擴增實境地圖在共同合作上方面的潛力。

NotebookPaperMap-lensSean White introduces SiteLens, a hand-held mobile AR system for urban design and urban planning site visits. SiteLens creates “situated visualizations" that are related to and displayed in their environment. For example, representations of geocoded carbon monoxide concentration data are overlaid at the sites at which the data
was recorded.

White, S. and Feiner, S. SiteLens: Situated visualization techniques for urban site visits. Proc. CHI 2009, Boston, MA, April 4-9, 2009, 1117-1120

Sean White 介紹了  SiteLens,一套給城市設計和都市規劃使用的手持行動裝置的擴增實境系統。 SiteLens 建立了 “situated visualizations" 。舉例來說,呈現有紀錄的二氧化碳的濃度在對應的位置上。

PhoneToolMap-lensSPRXmobile launches Layar, an advanced variant of Wikitude. Layar uses the same registration mechanism as Wikitude (GPS + compass), and incoperates this into an open client-server platform. Content layers are the equivalent of web pages in normal browsers. Existing layers include Wikipedia, Twitter and Brightkite to local services like Yelp, Trulia, store locators, nearby bus stops, mobile coupons, Mazda dealers and tourist, nature and cultural guides. On August 17th Layar went global serving almost 100 content layers.

Layar

SPRXmobile 啟用了 Layar,進階版的 Wikitude。Layar 使用跟Wikitude相同的定位機制,GPS加上數位羅盤,此外還建立了開放式的開放平台。內容層就像是一般瀏覽器上的網頁一般。現有的虛擬層像是  Wikipedia, Twitter 和  Brighkite 以及地區性的服務 像是  Yelp、 Trulia 店家的位置,附近的公車站、行動裝置適用的優惠券、 馬自達的經銷商 以及自然以及文化的導覽。在 八月十七日時 Layar 達到了一百個虛擬層。

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