這篇文章只有兩頁,所以想說翻一翻好了,不然這禮拜好像太爽(是說上禮拜才結束 Paul Dourish 下禮拜又要開始..)。不過有些地方我不是看的很懂(劃底線的部份),如果有大德可以給予指教就太感謝了 !!!


Maps, both geographic and metaphorical, have been the tools of professionals in science, engineering, and design, for exploring terrain that is new, not fully understood, or just plain complex. More and more, the success of products depends on how well the products fit in the context of the everyday lives of their users. Hence, designers have a need to understand those contexts of product use. This involves understanding all the Aristotelian questions about experience: where, when, how, what, why, with whom, etc. surrounding the use of products. Not just on a functional level, but also on an emotional, empathic level. The design of a car, a mobile phone, or a music player should not just be technically sufficient, it must also fit its users’ emotional and social needs.
For this multi-faceted understanding, designers need metaphorical maps to the terrain of user experiences. We refer to this as the contextmap. The process of gathering, organising, and communicating the information, shown in (Fig. 1), is referred to as as contextmapping.

地圖,無論是地理上或是譬喻上的,都是在科學、工程和設計領域上用來探索嶄新的、尚未被完全了解領域的專業工具。產品的成功取決於它們能多麼貼近使用者的日常生活的脈絡中。因此,設計師必須去了解這些產品所使用的脈絡為何。這問題包含了了解亞里斯多德關於體驗的全部疑問:哪裡、何時、如何、什麼、為什麼、跟誰… 等這些跟使用產品相關的問題。並不僅僅在功能的層面,還有情緒、美學的層面。車、手機或是音樂播放器的設計並不應該僅僅是功能上的滿足,它還必須適合使用者的情緒和社交需求。
為了了解這些不同的面向,設計師需要譬喻上的地圖來探索使用者經驗的地貌。我們將其稱之為 contextmap。這個收集資料、組織且傳遞情報的過程(見圖一)可以稱作 contextmapping。


The results of the data gathering is a diverse collection of photographs, diagrams, annotations, stories, interview transcripts, etc. It is the task of the contextmapping research team to compile this into a form that the design team can use: the contextmaps.

收集而來的資料通常是是多樣化的圖片、圖表、標記、故事、面談的紀錄…等。這個就是 contextmapping 研究團隊的工作:將這些統整成一個形式讓設計團隊可以使用,這地圖叫做 contextmaps。
A contextmap is an explorer’s map: incomplete, ambiguous, diverse. (Fig. 2) depicts aspects of the map metaphor, which also reflect the way designers need information. These are issues like the proverb ‘the map is not the terrain’, ‘maps grow because the traveller adds to it’, ‘maps facilitate discussion and planning’, ‘maps are used with other tools’.

contextmap是一張探險家的地圖:未完成的、含糊不清的、多變的。(圖二) 描繪出了地圖的譬喻,這也反映了設計師需要資訊的方式。這個問題就跟俗諺中說得一樣:「地圖不是地表」、「地圖會成長是因為旅行者增加它」、「地圖讓討論跟計畫變得容易」、「地圖經常與其他工具一併使用」。

As compared to conventional ways of informing design teams about users, the contextmap does not replace the terrain (e.g., by demographic statistics, framed conclusions stated in abstract terms ‘must be used in offices’), but helps the design team to organize glimpses of life in real offices, and the people behind the statistics.
The aim is not to replace user experiences by one-dimensional criteria, but to help the design team access and explore people’s tacit rituals, their motives, goals when using a product. It allows designers to empathize with the user, to step into the user’s shoes. an example

相較於傳統方式告知設計團隊有關使用者方面的訊息, contextmap 並不會取代地貌(像是透過人口統計的資料,得出的抽象結論:"必須用於辦公室內"),但是可以讓設計團隊對於真實辦公室的生活有個概觀,和統計數據後面的人們。

這目標並不是想用一維的評判標準來取代使用者的經驗,而是想要幫助設計團隊去了解、探索人們在使用這個產品時默默進行的儀式、他們的動機、和目的。這使得設計師可以移情到使用者身上,進入使用者的情境當中。(an example 不知道哪來的….)

For example, consider the design of a new shaving experience for men. As with cars and digital electronics products, manufacturers of body care products find that the razors that the competition can make are as sharp, long-lasting, cheap, and strong as their own. Hence, they look for advantage along the dimensions of the user experience. This involves building a map of what factors are involved in shaving, and the user study generates diverse insights, both practical and emotion-al, both superficial and profound: ‘I hate cleaning the sink afterwards’, ‘shaving foam is like playing in the snow as a child’, ‘when shaving I see my face in the mirror, and am reminded that I am getting older’. These observations, together with images of where and when people shave, give many rich glimpes of the terrain of the shaving experi- ence of other people. This helps female designers empathize with how men experi- ence shaving; it also helps male designers empathize with how other men experience it differently from themselves.

舉例來說,試想要為男性設計新的刮鬍體驗。就像是車子跟數位產品一樣,身體護理產品製造商發現競爭對手可以在刮鬍刀的鋒利利、耐用度、便宜度上與他們競爭,且做的跟他們一樣好。因此,他們想找找尋在使用者體驗這個領域的可能性。 這張地圖包含了在刮鬍子時所包含的要素、透過使用者調查後得到的各式各樣的洞見、實際使用上或是情感上的、以及表面或是深度的意見:"我恨事後清除水槽 、"刮鬍泡就像是在雪中跟小朋友玩"、"當我刮鬍子時,鏡中看到的臉提醒我我一直逐漸老去"。這些觀察,伴隨著何處與何時人們刮鬍子的照片,給予其他人對於刮鬍子這個經驗有一個豐富的概觀。這幫助女性設計師了解到男性的刮鬍經驗,這同時也幫助男性設計師如何移情至與自己很不相同的其他男性刮鬍經驗上。

Designers indicate they don’t derive inspiration or ‘the feeling for the situation’ from a conventional research report. In our experience, they must not be passive receivers of information, but active partici- pants, who annotate and extend the maps they use.


Therefore, the shape of contextmaps resembles that of the early explorers: the
maps are incomplete, possibly ambiguous, with pieces of raw data like the elephants drawn into the ‘terra incognita’ white spaces in the map, or the 3D landmark buildings on some tourist maps. Their shapes can be evocative, such as the infographic of the shaving experience shown in (Fig. 3). Designers appreciate such open-ended forms of presentations, such as the ‘personal cardset’ and the ‘action posters’ shown in (Fig. 4).

因此, contextmaps 看起來就像是早期探險家地圖:不完整的、很可能相當模糊,帶有部份原始的資料像是在地圖上未知的領域上畫上的大象,或是某些旅遊地圖上的3D建物地標。它們的形式可以喚醒相關的記憶,像是圖三中的關於刮鬍體驗的資訊圖表。設計師欣賞這種開放的表現形式、像是 如圖四的 ‘個人的牌組’ 和行動海報等。

In both of these communication tools, a varied mix is given of photos, diagrams, short and long quotes, etc. These are organized tentatively, but it is left to the reader to participate in the communication; there is space intended for notes, annotations, sketches, labels, which are made by the reader. These annotating actions help the design team to appropriate the information and be inspired by it, and to use it in generating and discussing new ideas. Over the years, user research departments of companies such as Microsoft and Philips, consultancies such as SonicRim and MakeTools, and research institutes such as the Royal College of Art and TU Delft have explored and developed these techniques of studying users and communicating these findings in new ways to designers.

這些溝通用的工具,混合了不同種類的圖片、對話、短或長些的引述文本…等。這些都被暫時組織在一起,且留給讀者與參與者有溝通的空間,通常會故意留給讀者空間去標註、繪製草圖。這個標註的行為幫助了設計團隊得以內化這些資訊且啟發設計團隊,更進一步透過這些標註在激發跟討論新點子上。這些年來,微軟跟飛利浦內部的使用者研究部門、顧問公司像是 SonicRim 和 Maketools 以及研究單位像是  Royal College of Art 和 TU Delft 均已經探索且發展這些使用者研究的技術,且透過這種新的方式跟設計師溝通。
In design, contextmapping methods (google for ‘cultural probes’ or ‘generative tools’), originated because design teams found the information they got in the project briefs insufficient and restrictive. The classical design brief, often based on market research, is abstract, numerical, and serves well to demarcate borders of the terrain within which to look for solutions, but does not help to find one’s way within those borders, and to deal with the many facets that the real world has that have been abstracted away.


在設計中, contextmapping 方法(google  cultural probes 或是  generative tools),起源於因為設計團隊發現他們從專案報告中所得到的資訊是不足且太多限制的。傳統的設計報告通常是基於市場研究,是抽象的、數字的,且這些報告對於界定尋找答案的範疇是有幫助的,但無法找到這些邊界,且也無法處理已經被抽象化後真實世界的多個面向
At ID-StudioLab, part of our research is aimed to find how multifaceted explorer maps of user contexts can enhance a design team’s understanding of contexts of product use. It is expected that, in turn, this understanding of how to help designers experience the information about people’s experience, can help the field of information presentation in general, for instance by making receiver into an active participant.

在ID-Studio Lab, 我們一部分的研究就是專注在如何找到關於使用者的脈絡的多個面向地圖來幫助設計團隊理解使用者在使用產品的脈絡。可以期待的是這如何來幫助設計師感受使用者經驗的經驗也可以在廣域的資訊呈現面上給予幫助,像是將接收者轉變成積極的參與者。


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